Macam-Macam Teks bahasa Inggris dan Contohnya

1. Teks Narrative

Teks yang berisi tentang sebuah cerita atau dongeng dan di dalamnya terdapat konflik/puncak masalah yang diikuti dengan penyelesaian.
Generic Structure: Orientation – Complication – Resolution
Orientation berisi: Pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita
Complication berisi: Puncak masalah/konflik dalam cerita
Resolution: Pemecahan masalah

contoh :

The Wise Little Girl

Once upon a time in the immense Russian steppe, lay a little village where nearly all the inhabitants bred horses. It was the month of October, when a big livestock market was held yearly in the main town. Two brothers, one rich and the other one poor, set off for market. The rich man rode a stallion, and the poor brother a young mare.
At dusk, they stopped beside an empty hut and tethered their horses outside, before going to sleep themselves on two heaps of straw. Great was their surprise, when, next morning they saw three horses outside, instead of two. Well, to be exact the newcomer was not really a horse. It was a foal, to which the mare had given birth during the night. Soon it had the strength to struggle to its feet, and after a drink of its mother’s milk, the foal staggered its first few steps. The stallion greeted it with a cheerful whinny, and when the two brothers set eyes on it for the first time, the foal was standing beside the stallion.
“It belongs to me!” exclaimed Dimitri, the rich brother, the minute he saw it. “It’s my stallion’s foal.” Ivan, the poor brother, began to laugh.
“Whoever heard of a stallion having a foal? It was born to my mare!”
“No, that’s not true! It was standing close to the stallion, so it’s the stallion’s foal. And therefore it’s mine!” The brothers started to quarrel, then they decided to go to town and bring the matter before the judges. Still arguing, they headed for the big square where the courtroom stood. But what they didn’t know was that it was a special day, the day when, once a year, the Emperor himself administered the law. He himself received all who came seeking justice. The brothers were ushered into his presence, and they told him all about the dispute.

Of course, the Emperor knew perfectly well who was the owner of the foal. He was on the point of proclaiming in favor of the poor brother, when suddenly Ivan developed an unfortunate twitch in his eye. The Emperor was greatly annoyed by this familiarity by a humble peasant, and decided to punish Ivan for his disrespect. After listening to both sides of the story, he declared it was difficult, indeed impossible, to say exactly who was the foal’s rightful owner. And being in the mood for a spot of fun, and since he loved posing riddles and solving them as well, to the amusement of his counselors, he exclaimed.
“I can’t judge which of you should have the foal, so it will be awarded to whichever of you solves the following four riddles: what is the fastest thing in the world? What is the fattest? What’s the softest and what is the most precious? I command you to return to the palace in a week’s time with your answers!” Dimitri started to puzzle over the answers as soon as he left the courtroom. When he reached home, however, he realized he had nobody to help him.
“Well, I’ll just have to seek help, for if I can’t solve these riddles, I’ll lose the foal!” Then he remembered a woman, one of his neighbors, to whom he had once lent a silver ducat. That had been some time ago, and with the interest, the neighbor now owed him three ducats. And since she had a reputation for being quick-witted, but also very astute, he decided to ask her advice, in exchange for canceling part of her debt. But the woman was not slow to show how astute she really was, and promptly demanded that the whole debt be wiped out in exchange for the answers.

“The fastest thing in the world is my husband’s bay horse,” she said. “Nothing can beat it! The fattest is our pig! Such a huge beast has never been seen! The softest is the quilt I made for the bed, using my own goose’s feathers. It’s the envy of all my friends. The most precious thing in the world is my three-month old nephew. There isn’t a more handsome child. I wouldn’t exchange him for all the gold on earth, and that makes him the most precious thing on earth!”
Dimitri was rather doubtful about the woman’s answers being correct. On the other hand, he had to take some kind of solution back to the Emperor. And he guessed, quite rightly, that if he didn’t, he would be punished.
In the meantime, Ivan, who was a widower, had gone back to the humble cottage where he lived with his small daughter. Only seven years old, the little girl was often left alone, and as a result, was thoughtful and very clever for her age. The poor man took the little girl into his confidence, for like his brother, he knew he would never be able to find the answers by himself. The child sat in silence for a moment, then firmly said.
“Tell the Emperor that the fastest thing in the world is the cold north wind in winter. The fattest is the soil in our fields whose crops give life to men and animals alike, the softest thing is a child’s caress and the most precious is honesty.”
The day came when the two brothers were to return before the Emperor. They were led into his presence. The Emperor was curious to hear what they had to say, but he roared with laughter at Dimitri’s foolish answers. However, when it was Ivan’s turn to speak, a frown spread over the Emperor’s face. The poor brother’s wise replies made him squirm, especially the last one, about
honesty, the most precious thing of all. The Emperor knew perfectly well that he had been dishonest in his dealings with the poor brother, for he had denied him justice. But he could not bear to admit it in front of his own counselors, so he angrily demanded:
“Who gave you these answers?” Ivan told the Emperor that it was his small daughter. Still annoyed, the great man said.
“You shall be rewarded for having such a wise and clever daughter. You shall be awarded the foal that your brother claimed, together with a hundred silver ducats… But… but…” and the Emperor winked at his counselors.
“You will come before me in seven days’ time, bringing your daughter. And since she’s so clever, she must appear before me neither naked nor dressed, neither on foot nor on horseback, neither bearing gifts nor empty-handed. And if she does this, you will have your reward. If not, you’ll have your head chopped off for your impudence!”
The onlookers began to laugh, knowing that the poor man would never to able to fulfill the Emperor’s conditions. Ivan went home in despair, his eyes brimming with tears. But when he had told his daughter what had happened, she calmly said.
“Tomorrow, go and catch a hare and a partridge. Both must be alive! You’ll have the foal and the hundred silver ducats! Leave it to me!” Ivan did as his daughter said. He had no idea what the two creatures were for, but he trusted in his daughter’s wisdom.
On the day of the audience with the Emperor, the palace was thronged with bystanders, waiting for Ivan and his small daughter to arrive. At last, the little girl appeared, draped in a fishing net, riding the hare and holding the partridge in her hand. She was neither naked nor dressed, on foot or on horseback. Scowling, the Emperor told her.
“I said neither bearing gifts nor empty-handed!” At these words, the little girl held out the partridge. The Emperor stretched out his hand to grasp it, but the bird fluttered into the air. The third condition had been fulfilled. In spite of himself, the Emperor could not help admiring the little girl who had so cleverly passed such a test, and in a gentler voice, he said.
“Is your father terribly poor, and does he desperately need the foal.”
“Oh, yes!” replied the little girl. “We live on the hares he catches in the rivers and the fish he picks from the trees!”
“Aha!” cried the Emperor triumphantly. “So you’re not as clever as you seem to be! Whoever heard of hares in the river and fish in the trees! To which the little girl swiftly replied.
“And whoever heard of a stallion having a foal?” At that, both Emperor and Court burst into peals of laughter. Ivan was immediately given his hundred silver ducats and the foal, and the Emperor proclaimed.
“Only in my kingdom could such a wise little girl be born!”

2. Teks Descriptive

Teks yang mendeskripsikan benda, orang, tempat, secara spesifik.
Generic Structure nya: Identification – Description
Identification berisi: Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan, misalnya: I have many pets, but my favourite one is a cat.
Description berisi: deskripsi rinci tentang bagian – bagiannya, misalnya tentang physical appearance (ciri – ciri fisik), sifat – sifatnya (characteristics)dll.
Contoh judul teks deskriptif:

Hi friends! This is my friend Miranda. She comes from Sulawesi. She was born in Makasar on June 12, 1980. her hobbies are singing and swimming. She also likes planting flowers very much. She lives at 12 Jalan Jaya. She lives together with her parents and two sisters. They are Mr. and Mrs Yudhatama, Sherina and Tiara.
Miranda studies at SMP 7. Her older sister is in the first year
of SMA, and Tiara is still in SD. They all love one another.

 

3. Teks Procedure

Teks yang menjelaskan atau memberi petunjuk cara/langkah – langkah membuat atau melakukan sesuatu.
Generic Structure: Aim/Goal – Materials/Tools – Steps/Methods
Aim/Goal, misalnya: How to make Brownies Cake
Materials berisi: bahan – bahan dan atau alat – alat untuk membuat Brownies tersebut
Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text
Steps/Methods berisi: langkah – langkah membuat Brownies

Contoh Teks Procedure:
How to make Lemonade
Ingredients:
For each glass use:
– 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.
– 2 tablespoons of sugar.
– 1 glass of water
Methods:
1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
2. Take out the seeds.
3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
4. Add sugar
5. Add water and stir well
6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right
7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade

atau :
HOW TO MAKE PEANUT CRUNCH

What you’ll need :
v 1 cup of peanuts
v 3 cups of brown sugar
v 2 tablespoons of vinegar
v 1 cup of water

What to do :
Place the sugar, water and vinegar into a large saucepan.
Stir slowly over a low heat until the sugar is disolved
Add peanuts , increase the heat and allow to boil
Remove from the heat when the nuts have craked and the mixture appears golden brown
Allow bubbles to settle
Spoon into small paper patty cases or pour the mixture into a flat greased pan and mark into bite-size pieces.

Makes enough Peanut Crunch for six people

 

4. Teks Recount

Teks yang berisi kejadian/ pengalaman di waktu lampau.
Generic Structure: Orientation – Even(s)
Orientation berisi: Pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu.
Event (s) berisi: Kejadian/Peristiwa – peristiwa yang terjadi.
Re-orientation(Optional/Tidak harus ada): Ungkapan pribadi penulis atau penutup dari cerita.

Contoh Teks Recount:

CLASS PICNIC
Last Friday our school went to Centennial Park for a picnic
First our teachers marked the rolls and the we got on the buses. On the buses, everyone was chatting and eating. When we arrived at the park, some students played cricket, some played cards but others went for a walk with the teachers. At lunchtime, we sat together and had our picnic. Finally, at two o’clock we left for school.
We had a great day.

Atau :
An Excursion to the Botanical Garden

On Thursday 24 April we went to the Botanical Garden. We walked down and boarded the bus.
After we arrived at the garden, we walked down to the Education Centre. The third grade students went to have alook around. First, we went to the first farm and Mrs. James read us some information. Then, we looked at all the lovely plants. After that we went down to a little spot on the Botanical Garden and had a morning tea break.
Next, we did sketching and then we met the fourth grade students at the Education Centre to have lunch. Soon after that, it was time for us to go and make our terrariums while the fourth year students went to have a walk.
A lady took us into a special room and introduced herself. Then she explained what we were going to do. Next, she took us to a pyramid terrarium. It was really interesting.
After we had finished, we met the fourth grade students outside the gardens. Then we reboarded the bus and returned to school.

5. Teks Report

Teks yang isinya menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala- gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentang rumah sederhana dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana.
Generic Structure: General Classification – Description
General Classification berisi: Klasifikasi suatu fenomena (binatang, public places, tanaman, dll) yang akan didiskusikan/ dilaporkan secara umum .
Description berisi: Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya, kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup, kegunaannya jika non natural.
Contoh Teks Report:

The heart is the most important part of the body. It is the center of life. However, the heart is only as big as a closed hand.
The heart is a muscle and it beats about seventy times per minute throughthout a person’s life.
The heart pumps blood from your heart to all parts of your body. The heart is made up of four chambers or small “rooms”. The top chamber are called the right and left auriclesand the botttom chambers are the right and left ventricles.
When blood enters the heart. It is in dark reddish color because it countains carbon dioxide. The blood enters the right auricle and then the right ventricle. When the heart contracts, it forces the blood to the lungs where the blood receives oxygen. It then goes to the left auricle. The heart contracts again, and the blood goes to the left ventricle and is then forced out into the body. The blood gathers carbon dioxide and returns to the heart, and the process begins again.

6. Spoof

Once Upon A Time 3 (three) women (people of Java, Manado and Papua) to fly from Jayapura to Jakarta.
Suddenly the plane trip amid shaky and it feels like fall.

Instantly Javanese woman had taken the powder and lipstick to dress up pretty, her friend on the confused and
asked, “Why koq grooming?”
He said, “Ordinary if the plane would fall that first helped her the most beautiful.”

Aehhh Menado woman next to them .. can not accept, then she lift her skirt up high.
Friend next to them asked, “Why do you lift the skirt up high so?”

He replied, “Ordinary when the first plane crash that helped her white thighs and white. “

Hehhh .. Papuan women are emotional to hear the two friends next to them babble.

She then undressed and naked bulattt … .. …. everything was black.

His two friends were surprised and asked, “Why so naked?”

With lightly he replied,
“Usually if a plane crashes the most sought my first BLACK BOX.”

 

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